Power Purchase Agreements

3 days 8-10 May 2018, Dubai UAE £3,395.00 Download brochure Add to basket
3 days 4-6 Sep 2018, London UK £3,395.00 + VAT* Download brochure Add to basket

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This 3-day course is designed to introduce both lawyers and nonlawyers alike to the understanding of how to arrange and manage Power Purchase Agreements (‘PPAs’) and how to set up dispute resolution processes.

The emphasis of the conference will be to provide a practical understanding of the contracting process and PPA’s in general. This will include contract selection, terms of art when entering into a PPA, differentiating the interests of buyers and sellers, and contract preparation, together with a section on the effective management and resolution of disputes.

This course is aimed at those who are interested in acquiring a detailed understanding of how to draft and negotiate PPAs, what the clauses and industry terms are for and how you can best use them together with the knowledge of the legal environment which facilitates such a process. This course is delivered by providing an overall view of the worldwide industry and specific examples of deals that have been completed.

Course objectives

By the end of the course, delegates will have:

  • A firm, substantive and practical understanding of PPA contracts
  • A firm understanding of how to deal with disputes related to PPA contracts


Who should attend

  • Business analysts
  • Business development and marketing managers
  • Commercial managers
  • Consultants
  • Contract managers
  • Corporate and project financing personnel
  • Economists
  • Engineers
  • External legal counsel
  • In-house legal counsel
  • Project managers
  • Regulators
  • Government officials

Attendance is a must for senior personnel involved in power projects.


We work with a series of expert instructors, please select the course location of interest to review the credentials of who will be delivering the programme.

David Byron
David is a mechanical engineer who has worked as a commercial Manager/Director in the onshore and offshore construction industry for the past 40 years. He worked for major oil companies in the UK, the Middle East and the Far East on a large number of offshore oil and gas projects. In particular he has spent ten years working for Shell in the UK and in the Far East. Additionally he has worked for ten years in the heavy construction Industry, in particular the construction of major suspension bridges in China. He was a Commercial Director of a major construction company with responsibility for world- wide procurement and all projects in China. For the past ten years David has worked as a Commercial director for various companies working in the onshore and offshore Renewable Energy Industry, in particular the offshore and onshore wind energy sector. He has a lot of experience in working on dispute resolution, having been involved in several arbitrations and adjudications.
Christian Grütte

The instructor is an independent investment and financial advisor with more than ten years’ experience in the renewable energy sector. He advises on renewable energy strategies, business development and financing globally. He has successfully supported leading utilities, IPPs, developers and financial investors to build pipelines of renewable energy projects across international markets.

His specific experience includes the assessment of regulatory, technology and development risk in countries around the globe. Further, his focus is to evaluate and create the ability of renewable energy projects to be financed both from equity sponsors and debt lenders.

Christian is a recommended speaker at leading international renewable energy conferences and seminar trainer on renewable investment and financing topics to executives in Europe, the US, Chile, Mexico, South Africa, Dubai and Brazil.

He formed part of the Working Group ‘Financing the Energy Turnaround’ in Frankfurt and was one of the first members of the European Technology Platform for Wind Energy, as well as of EWEA, ACORE, LAWEA, EUBIA, ESHA and EGEC.

He holds an MSc in Industrial Engineering and Management from the Technical University of Berlin and currently serves as a lecturer in the Renewable Energy Finance Studies Program of the Frankfurt School of Finance and Management.



Dubai Hotel

This programme takes place on a non-residential basis at a central Dubai hotel. Non-residential course fees include training facilities, documentation, lunches and refreshments for the duration of the programme. Delegates are responsible for arranging their own accommodation, however, a list of convenient hotels (many at specially negotiated rates) is available upon registration.

Dubai has an incredible number of hotels. Courses held here are mainly held at the J.W. Marriot hotel, Sheraton Dubai Creek and Le Meridien all in central Dubai.
J.W. Marriott Hotel – Abu Baker Al Siddique Road, PO Box 16590, Dubai, U.A.E
Phone +971 4 607 7811; Fax +971 4 607 7011
At the JW Marriott Dubai you will enjoy luxury on your terms; impeccable service and elegant surroundings allow you to relax and focus on your own agenda. With 344 luxuriously appointed rooms and suites the J.W. Marriott provides an oasis of calm in a busy city while the award-winning restaurants have the recipe for satisfying a taste for international flavour.        
Sheraton Dubai Creek – Baniyas Street, PO Box 4250, Dubai, U.A.E
Phone +971 4 228 1111; Fax +971 4 221 3468
After undergoing a complete renovation, the Sheraton Dubai Creek Hotel& Towers reopened October 10th, 2002 with a fully refurbished interior and exterior. The 255 room hotel now offers more creek-view rooms, redesigned atrium lobby, outstanding food and beverage facilities, upgraded rooms with state-of-the-art data connectivity, and Dubai's newest conference facilities. 

Le Meridien – PO Box 10001, Airport Road, Dubai, U.A.E
Phone +971 4 282 4040; Fax +971 4 282 5540
Le Meridien Dubai is a five star deluxe hotel built on two floors and surrounded by 38 acres of landscaped gardens. The hotel is elegantly furnished with a french accent that incorporates the individual character and flair of the local culture. The hotel is minutes away from the commercial districts and shopping centres and a short distance from Dubai International Airport. Facilities include a choice of 15 restaurants and bars, 24-hour room and laundry service, two fully equipped business centres and a state-of-the-art Spa and fitness club.



Central London Hotel Venue

All courses are held at four or five star venues in Central London, Zone 1. We strive to provide you with a training environment of the highest quality, to ensure that the whole learning experience exceeds your expectations.

Your training venue will be confirmed by one of our course administrators approximately 3-4 weeks before the course start date.

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Do you have five or more people interested in attending this course? Do you want to tailor it to meet your company's exact requirements? If you'd like to do either of these, we can bring this course to your company's office. You could even save up to 50% on the cost of sending delegates to a public course.

To find out more about running this course in-house:

Our Tailored Learning Offering

If you want to run this course at a location convenient to you or if you want a completely customised learning solution, we can help.

We produce learning solutions that are completely unique to your business. We'll guide you through the whole process, from the initial consultancy to evaluating the success of the full learning experience. Our learning specialists ensure you get the maximum return on your training investment.


We can offer any of our public courses delivered at your office or we can devise completely tailored solutions:

Read more about our offering or complete a call back request to speak to a learning specialist.



Agendas are localised, please select your preferred location.

Day 1

Introduction to deregulated and competitive electricity markets

  • Overview of electricity functional markets
  • Generation
  • Wholesale
  • Transmission
  • Distribution
  • Retail

Overview of deregulated competitive electricity wholesale markets

  • Wholesale market transactions (bids and offers) in electricity are typically cleared and settled by the market operator or a special-purpose independent entity charged exclusively with that function
  • Criteria
    • Co-ordinated spot market
    • Bid/offer based
    • Security-constrained, economic dispatch and nodal prices (locational marginal prices)
  • History of competitive wholesale markets
  • Competitive wholesale markets vs. Single buyer markets
  • Competitive wholesale markets in contest of traditional electricity market reform measures

Introduction to Power Purchase Agreements

  • Role of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) in competitive markets
  • Purpose of PPA
  • Types of PPAs
  • Types of purchasers

Basic risks allocated by Power Purchase Agreements

  • Completion of power project
  • Reserves of feedstock fuel
  • Operation of the power project
  • Transport (connection, transmission and distribution)
  • Credit risk
  • Market risk

Pricing in competitive markets

  • Price negotiation
  • Pricing models
  • Pricing structures
  • Two part tariff structures

Case study: Use of two part tariff structure

  • Take or pay structures and market risk
  • Key issues in take or pay PPAs
  • Hedges (Contract for Differences, Futures Contracts and Options)

Day 2

PPA Conditions Precedent

  • Conditions precedent

PPA and Plant Operations

  • Commissioning and commercial operation dates Scheduling and dispatch
  • Delivery points and transport
  • Ownership of connection assets
  • Scheduling of outages

The PPA and project financing

  • Interrelationship between PPA and:
    • EPC (procurement and construction) agreements
    • Vendor project vehicle (incorporated and unincorporated joint ventures)
    • Operating agreements
  • Financing agreements
  • Transport (connection, transmission and distribution) agreements
  • Feedstock fuel supply agreement
  • Insurance
  • Assignment of PPA revenue
  • Assignment of PPA
  • Project lender step in rights

Case Study: Overnight review of the Sample Power Purchase Agreement

Day 3

Specific risk allocations

  • Feedstock fuel risk
  • Transport risk
  • Foreign exchange risk
  • Tax risk

The key risk allocation mechanism

  • Force Majeure
  • Frustrated PPAs and force majeure
  • Definition of force majeure events
  • Who does the clause protect?
  • Notice
  • Prorata of available supply of power
  • Failure of feedstock fuel supply
  • Scope of force majeure events

Case Study: Risk allocation and mitigation measures in Power Purchase Agreements

Discussion: What is the risk allocation under the Sample Power Purchase Agreement?

'Boiler plate' provisions (so called)

  • Assignment and change in control
  • Negotiation in good faith
  • Reasonable/best endeavours
  • Entire agreement clauses

PPAs with government and state-owned enterprises

  • Political risk
  • Sovereign risk
  • Stabilization provisions
  • Change in law
  • Tax gross ups
  • Other contractual mechanisms

Dispute resolution

  • Dispute resolution procedures (private sector party to party PPAs)
  • International arbitration for private sector party to party PPAs International arbitration with Governments
  • International arbitration clauses

Day 1

What is a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)?

  • A PPA defines the commercial terms for the sale of energy between two parties
  • Explanation of range of situations in which a PPA is used
  • International examples of commercial deals using PPAs both short and long term

Drafting a PPA: part I

  • General interests of buyer versus seller
  • Drafting the technical scope of work and construction milestones
  • Pricing structures
  • Timing
  • Payment terms and credit arrangements
  • Liquidated damages
  • Damages for delays
  • Programmes (time schedules)
  • Force Majeure clauses

Drafting a PPA: part II

  • Curtailments
  • Maintenance
  • Risks related to changes in law
  • Environmental risks 

Day 2

Effective contract management

  • Understanding the rights, roles, responsibilities and obligations of the parties
  • Ensuring the parties fulfil their obligations
  • Record keeping and document control
  • Management of change and speedy resolution of technical disputes
  • Programme management
  • Claims management
  • Time bar and limitation- International examples of commercial deals using PPAs both short and long term

Negotiation art or science?

  • Principles of negotiation
  • Understanding the needs of the buyer v. the seller
  • How to avoid the usual pitfalls of negotiation
  • Understanding and drafting to accommodate disputes arising in the early stages
  • Technical dispute resolution clauses and appointment of arbitrators for technical issues
  • Choice of venue

Day 3

Understanding arbitration and how its used in PPAs

  • What is arbitration and how does it apply to PPAs?
  • Types of arbitration
  • How it works
  • How to use arbitration effectively
  • The relationship between in-house and outside counsel: how to maintain, or ruin, the relationship
  • Cost estimates, fee arrangements, and budgeting
  • Establishing dispute resolution objectives – goal setting

Practical training and case study

Course summary and close

Why us

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  • Quality – our clients consistently rate our performance ‘excellent’ or ‘outstanding’. Our average overall score awarded to us by our clients is nine out of ten.
  • Track record – we have delivered training solutions for 95% of worlds’ top 100 banks and have trained over 250,000 professionals.
  • Knowledge – our 150 strong team of industry specialist trainers are world leading financial leaders and commentators, ensuring our knowledge base is second to none.
  • Reliability – if we promise it, we deliver it. We have delivered over 20,000 events both in person and online, using simultaneous translation to delegates from over 180 countries.
  • Recognition – we are accredited by the British Accreditation Council and the CPD Certification Service. In an independent review by Feefo we scored 96% on service and 95% on product